Deposition techniques

Laser Cladding

Laser cladding is a technique that bonds alloys to the surface with a low degree of dilution and it is particularly suited for use in high volume automated applications.

Process

Laser cladding is a surface welding method that enables a metallurgical bonding with the base material substrate, like in case of PTA surface welding.The overlays can be applied to most Fe and Ni based substrates with some exceptions.

A high energy laser beam creates an intense heat input and thus alloys are bonded to the surface with a low degree of dilution (<5%). Laser cladding can be fully automated and thus once the parameters are fixed for a certain design, consistent final results are achieved for all parts.

Typical working range

  • Deposition rate: up to 8 kg/hour
  • Deposition thickness: 0.5 - >4 mm
  • Deposition hardness*: >22 - 61 HRC

* Typical for PTA welding / 5% -10% higher with laser cladding

Benefits

  • Suitable for automation
  • No fusing required
  • 0.5->4 mm thickness

Problems with laser cladding?

Laser cladding troubleshooting
Problem Cause Solution
Deposit peels off 1. Poor preparation of the surface (oxidized or dirty surface)
2. Too low preheating temperature
3. Too fast cladding speed
4. Wrong parameters / Bad bonding
Clean the surface well
Increase preheat
Increase power
Cracks

1. Overheating / too high welding power, too high dilution
2. Too low preheating temperature

3. Too fast cooling
4. Critical base material

Reduce welding power
Use preheating
Reduce cooling speed
Slow cooling / controlled cooling
Use buffer layer

Porosity

1. Poor preparation of the surface
2. Incorrect parameters (welding power, up-slope, down-slope)

Clean the surface well
Sand blast well
Adjust parameters

Clogging

1. Incorrect particle size
2. Too low temperature in the cooling water results in condensation
3. None spherical particles in the powder used

Reduce fines content
Adjust and control the cooling water temperature
Courtesy of Jarvie Engineering Pty Ltd

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